- 1: Enabling Technology for Fingerprint-Activated “Smart” Guns
- 2: Electronic Gun Safety Technology
- 3: Gun safes Gun Safety Technology
- 4: Mechanical Gun Safety Technology
1: Enabling Technology for Fingerprint-Activated “Smart” Guns
IMPORTANT NOTE: The inclusion of information in this table about a specific device does NOT mean that the device is available for use in a gun. Due to product liability concerns, no semiconductor company allows the use of its products in ANY health- or safety-related application — such as a gun — without the explicit written consent from the company’s senior management or Board of Directors.
|Technologies Required to Make a Fingerprint System||How it works||Supplier(s) and Status|
|Fingerprint image sensor||There are two main types of fingerprint sensors – optical sensors and “chip” sensors. Optical sensors uses a lens and are much too big for use in a gun but generally give better images than chip sensors, are not affected by static and have a faster readout and larger scan area.Note: Special techniques must be used to obtain a fingerprint image from a live finger. A simple photograph does not work because the contrast between ridges and valleys is much too low to produce a good image.User places his/her fingertip upon the sensor so that an image of the tiny but distinctive ridges and valleys of the fingerprint can be captured and processed by an external image processor.The larger the area of the finger that is sensed, the more ridges and valleys are captured and the more distinctive the fingerprint is.The sensor itself cannot capture, process or verify images because it has no memory or processing capability. It is like a camera without film.At 500 dots per inch, a common resolution for the capture of fingerprints, it is common to have 64,000 or more, 8-bit picture elements or “pixels” to process.The amount of time to capture an image, the size of the sensor and thus the extent of the captured image and uniqueness of the fingerprint, the cost, the resistance of the sensor to damage, and the ability of the sensor to operate in different environments, all vary depending upon the sensor technology. Other possible future implementation of biometrics is being projected with two possible technologies,both funded by NIJ. But none of them have reached a level of discrimination required by the law enforcements.One is owned by Smith and wesson which uses skin spectroscopy called the lightprint by lumidigm. The discovery made by researchers was that human skin of an individual can act as his fingerprints. The thickness of the skin and the presence of the unique characteristics of each individual, as well as the ease of reading this information simply by radio graphic testing of the skin by the laser beam in a fraction of a second can be used in the future in the field of electronic identification of user of the weapon. As in the devices with the fingerprint reader, a pistol and a rifle will be equipped with a small device that unlocks the weapons only for the owner. The advantage of this technology compared to fingerprinting –is no need to process the image. Measured only by the wavelength of light reflected skin, which reduces power consumption and size of the device. Other technology is the one designed by NJIT which uses hand grip pressure to identify the user.This technology have an advantage that it can be used even when the skin is wet or wearing hand gloves.||Infineon “FingerTip Sensor” – Semiconductor “capacitive” sensor is about 15 x 20 mm, housed in a package about 30 mm square, sensitive to static discharge. At least 1/10 second is required to obtain a single image, and it is usually necessary to capture several, at 1/10 second each, depending upon the details of how an external processor knows when to capture an image. Approx. $25 in large volume. Available. A German company formerly known as Siemens Semiconductor. This sensor is reportedly being using in the external fingerprint module being used with the S&W “smart” gun prototype. It is evidently being used in an external module due to its large size. We do not know if Infineon has approved its use in or with a gun.|
|Image processor||A processor operates under software control and receives raw image data from the fingerprint image sensor.Depending upon the software used, it: (1) completes the formation of a fingerprint image, (2) determines whether or not additional fingerprint images are required so as to have a quality image, (3) processes/enhances the image in preparation for extracting distinctive information from it, (4) extracts distinctive information from it, (5) compares that information to information about the fingerprints that are authorized to fire the gun, and (6) sends a signal to the mechanism that enables the gun to fire if the user is authorized to fire the gun.The entire task must be done extremely quickly, in less than about 1/10 of a second, if a “smart” gun is to be used normally, in the same way as an ordinary gun.||General purpose digital signal processor (DSP) chips are made by Analog Devices, Motorola, Texas Instruments and others. These processors manipulate fingerprint images much too slowly for use in a gun since they generally only handle one picture element at a time, and many picture elements must be processed very quickly.|
|Fingerprint software for autonomous applications (operate without a PC)||The rapid processing of fingerprints is fundamentally difficult because a large number of data points or picture elements must be processed, the images are complex and often corrupted, and there are many variables that affect the appearance of the print.It is relatively easy to make a standalone or autonomous (as opposed to FBI) fingerprint system work in the lab, but difficult to make it work reliably in practical applications.However, these problems can be overcome given proper sensors, sufficient processing power and sophisticated algorithms.A key variable in a practical fingerprint system is the location and orientation of a fingertip upon a fingerprint sensor. Most fingerprint sensors are built into a housing that tries to force the user to place his/her fingertip on the sensor in a particular way to minimize the number of variables that the fingerprint software, which processes the images, has to handle.In addition, the fingerprint system must deal with changes in a given fingerprint, such as from moisture, cuts, cracks, dirt and grease. These changes can obscure portions of the fingerprint, expand or contract the fingerprint, or create false details.Most fingerprint software extracts distinctive details called “minutia points” from the pattern of ridges in a fingerprint. Typical minutia points are the joining of two ridge lines, or the splitting or termination of a ridge line. When a live fingerprint is taken by the police, who generally capture the largest possible print, 40 or more minutia points are usually obtained from a single fingertip.The use of fingerprints for identification is considered highly reliable worldwide, and is widely and routinely used by the FBI.Most fingerprint software has been developed under the assumption that the amount of computer power available is quite limited.||Mytec recently announced that they have developed a fingerprint module using an Infineon fingerprint sensor (see above) and their fingerprint software for use external to a prototype “smart” gun being developed by Smith & Wesson (see below). Several newspaper articles about their development seemed to credit Mytec for development of the sensor which is, in fact, made by Infineon. Other than saying that the fingerprint module is so large that it cannot be built into the handle of a gun, no performance specifications for the speed, accuracy or number of users of the fingerprint system were provided.|
2: Electronic Gun Safety Technology
|Electronic Technology||How it would work||Supplier(s) and Status||Works with||Price US$|
|Fingerprint in handle||How it would work.Technical overview.Progress.Authorized user would pick up a gun, aim and fire, like with an ordinary gun, and with the same speed. One or more of the user’s fingertips would automatically land upon a specially designed fingerprint sensor that provides the high speed, ease-of-use and resistance to static required. The total time to activate the gun would be less than 2/10 second. One or more persons could use the same gun.User’s fingerprint would be quickly and automatically captured and verified within the handle of the gun so only authorized user(s) could fire the gun. Operation would be as foolproof as possible. Once enabled to fire, the gun could be fired until the owner lets go of it or runs out of ammunition. Each time the gun is picked up, a self-test circuit would verify the proper operation of the gun and confirm that sufficient battery power is available.||Could only be built into new guns, but could also be built into new trigger locks, magazines, lock boxes and safes.||Add $100 (est.) to retail price of gun.|
|Fingerprint in external module||Ref: The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 27, 2000, page B1, “Smart Guns Trigger a Debate”: In a prototype, the user places a special fingerprint module about the size of the gun handle into the butt of a specially built gun. He then scans his fingerprint into the module. Once the user is authorized, the module is removed and the ammunition magazine can be inserted into the gun handle. Grip sensors detect that the user has a firm grasp to activate the weapon. A new type of electrically-fired ammunition is used.Comments: A problematic human interface is used. It requires a lengthy several-step process that requires two hands and a large removable fingerprint module to be able to use the gun.It is not clear: (1) how long it takes for a fingerprint to be processed, (2) how accurate, reliable and easy to use the fingerprint module is, (3) how many different fingerprints/users can be used, (4) how long the gun remains active once armed, (5) how a fingerprint is entered into the module, (6) how the gun becomes disarmed, (7) whether or not the operation of the module can be circumvented, (8) whether or not a gun can be stolen and used with another module, (9) how reliable the new ammunition and firing mechanism are, (10) how many shots can be fired on a set of batteries, (11) how one knows how much power is available to operate the gun and module, (12) what the requirements are for storage of the module, or (13) why a new and unproven type of ammunition, which is fired electrically, is used.||Smith & Wesson Corp., Springfield, MA, tel. 800-331-0852, 100+ year-old gun company.Status: Prototype but not publicly demonstrated.Company is reportedly looking for Federal funding and has hired Washington lobbyists to try to get it. Incongrously, company has stated that personalized guns have a large market but it may drop the project if it cannot get government funding for it.According to a press release, module uses a “FingerTip” fingerprint sensor made by Infineon, a German semiconductor company.Comments:The construction and large size of this sensor appear to make it difficult to eliminate the separate fingerprint module and put the sensor into the handle of the gun. Furthermore, if the size of the sensor were reduced, the size of the fingerprint image would be reduced and it would be much more difficult if not impossible to distinguish one user from another.In addition, the primary innovation is apparently not the fingerprint technology but the use of an electronic firing mechanism instead of a conventional mechanical firing mechanism. As we understand it, the use of this electronic mechanism means that no firing pin strikes the bullet, removing a means for identifying which gun fired the bullet. This is contrary to the $65 million that the govt. is investing in technology to identify which gun fires a particular bullet used in a crime.||Could only be built into new guns.||Add $300 (est.) to retail price of gun.Reportedly at least two years from market.|
|Radio frequency in handle and wristband||Gun user wears a wrist band containing a small radio transmitter. The transmitter sends a signal to a receiver in the handle of the gun to activate it.||Colt Manufacturing Co., West Hartford, CT, tel. 860-244-1428Status: Abandoned. Colt has stopped manufacturing consumer products and split off a new company, iColt, to work on smart guns, but iColt has since closed.||Could only be built into new guns.||Not applicable|
|Combination lock in barrel||Gun user enters a combination into a series of pushbuttons beneath the barrel of a gun. Company says these guns are not really “smart” guns.||SIG Arms Inc., Exeter, NH, tel. 603-772-2302Status: Production summer of 2000. Company is reportedly for sale.||Could only be built into new guns.||Guns cost $950.|
3: Gun safes Gun Safety Technology
Right now the most pliable option to safeguard a your guns is a gun safe. There are different types available made especially to keep at various places at home, office or in your car.Just like traditional safes, gun safes are used to prevent the theft and unauthorized access of one’s valuables (in our case, guns).
Best gun safes
We have divided gun safe for various categories and purposes as well as price range.You can find the one you are looking for in these articles down below.
Best long gun safe-Safes that are actually built like true safes.They are expensive but a good investment if you looking for long term.These safe are strong enough to store more expensive items other than guns.
Best long gun safe for the money-Those who like to store just guns and are on a budget constraint these list can come handy.
Best small gun safe-Those who a just few handguns can choose a safe from this list.Gun safe in this article are listed for various purposes and price ranges.
Best bedside/nightstand gun safe-These safes made for handguns and sometimes one two rifle/Shotgun can be kept on the night stand in the bedroom.They are quick acting allowing quick access in need of self deference or home invasion etc.
Best car gun safe-They are gun safe for carrying small guns in your car or other vehicle.
4: Mechanical Gun Safety Technology
|Mechanical Technology||How it works||Supplier(s)||Works with||Price US$|
|Barrel block, cable||Cable with locking mechanism extends down barrel of gun, preventing it from being fired||Trigger lock from Hodge Products, El Cajon, CA, tel. 800 778-2217||Any gun||$10 up|
|Trigger block, mechanical||Block fits between back of trigger and trigger guard and is secured by padlock||Saf-T-Block from Concept Development, Scottsdale, AZ, tel. 800 472-4405||Any gun||$20|
|Barrel block, rod||Metal rod with locking mechanism extends down barrel of gun, preventing bullets from entering firing chamber||Chamber-Safe from Rocky Mountain Tool & Armory, Huntington Beach, CA, tel: 714 848-3234.||Selected guns||$30|
|Trigger block, magnetic, integrated||Internal pin blocks trigger mechanism, and is released when user wears a magnetic ring||Magloc from Smart Lock Technology, Richmond, BC, tel. 604 551-8492||Selected guns||$70|
|Trigger lock, detached||Clamshell device fits over trigger mechanism, immobilizing it. Requires key or combination to open. In mechanical and electromechanical styles.||Master Lock Co., Milwaukee, WI, tel. 414 444-2800; Speed Release, Dallas, TX, tel. 800 939-2311; Hodge Products, El Cajon, CA tel. 800 778-2217||Any gun||$10 up|
|Trigger lock, built-in||Small hex key with hollow end turns shaft in rear of gun handle to lock/unlock trigger||Taurus Firearms, Miami, FL, tel. 800-327-3776||Selected gun models||varies|
|Trigger lock, integrated||Combination lock in gun grips prevents trigger from being pulled||Saf-T-Lok, West Palm Beach, FL, tel. 561-478-5625||Selected gun models||$70|
|Hammer lock, mechanical||Device prevents firing pin from coming in contact with bullet. Can sound alarm.||Gunlock, Inc., North Haven, CT, tel. 203 239-5958||Any gun||$35|
|Removable hammer||Hammer can be removed then reinstalled quickly when gun is needed||Saf-T-Hammer Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, tel. 877 723-8426||Many guns||$50|
|Hammer lock, magnetic||Magnet in revolver frame prevents hammer from moving unless user is wearing a magnetic ring||Magna-Trigger from Tarnhelm Supply Co., Boscawen, NH, tel. 603 796-2551||Selected S&W gun models||$250 plus $40 for a ring|
|Hammer lock, magnetic||Magnet in shotgun frame prevents hammer from moving unless user is wearing a magnetic ring||Shotguns from Mossberg, North Haven, CT, tel. 203-230-5380||Selected models||varies|
|Hammer lock, magnetic||Fulton Arms, Houston, says it will have a smart gun on the market in a matter of weeks that unlocks by reading a magnetic code, similar to the magnetic strip found on the back of a credit card. [Philadelphia Inquirer, June 1998]||Fulton Arms, Houston, TX, claims to be inventor of term “smart gun”|
|Magazine lock||Combination lock in pistol grip prevents bullets from entering firing chamber||Saf-T-Lok, West Palm Beach, FL, tel. 561 478-5625||Selected gun models||$90|
|Chamber indicators||Visual indication of whether or not a bullet is in the chamber||Walther, Beretta||Selected models||varies|